The term Hellenistic is a modern invention; the Hellenistic World not only included a huge area covering the whole of the Aegean, rather than the Classical Greece focused on the Poleis of Athens and Sparta, but also a huge time range. [15] The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis (c. 200–118), a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. 83-86, para. What was the significance of Hellenistic cities? Scythian pressure on the Bosporan kingdom under Paerisades V led to its eventual vassalage under the Pontic king Mithradates VI for protection, c. 107 BC. What is the value of being media and information literate individual? ISBN 9789004306202 $241.00. Attalus I (241–197 BC), was a staunch ally of Rome against Philip V of Macedon during the first and second Macedonian Wars. This defeat allowed Pontus to invade and conquer the kingdom. Meanwhile, Lysimachus took over Ionia, Seleucus took Cilicia, and Ptolemy captured Cyprus. hel'-en-iz'-m, hel'-en-ist: Hellenism is the name we give to the manifold achievements of the Greeks in social and political institutions, in the various arts, in science and philosophy, in morals and religion. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about AD 10, at which time it was finally ended by the Indo-Scythians. [27] After Demetrius Poliorcetes captured Athens in 307 BC and restored the democracy, the Athenians honored him and his father Antigonus by placing gold statues of them on the agora and granting them the title of king. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. The Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achaean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or even the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in AD 330. The Kingdom of Pontus was a Hellenistic kingdom on the southern coast of the Black Sea. The Spartocids were a hellenized Thracian family from Panticapaeum. From 37 BC to 4 BC, Herod the Great ruled as a Jewish-Roman client king appointed by the Roman Senate. See more. New siege engines were developed during this period. Moses Hadas portrayed an optimistic picture of synthesis of culture from the perspective of the 1950s, while Frank William Walbank in the 1960s and 1970s had a materialistic approach to the Hellenistic period, focusing mainly on class relations. According to Strabo, the Greco-Bactrians seem to have had contacts with China through the silk road trade routes (Strabo, XI.11.1). Illyrians on the coast of the Adriatic were under the effects and influence of Hellenisation and some tribes adopted Greek, becoming bilingual[31][32][33] due to their proximity to the Greek colonies in Illyria. Hierax carved off most of Seleucid Anatolia for himself, but was defeated, along with his Galatian allies, by Attalus I of Pergamon who now also claimed kingship. [80] Under the Hellenistic kingdoms, Judea was ruled by the hereditary office of the High Priest of Israel as a Hellenistic vassal. Rhodes later became a Roman ally against the Seleucids, receiving some territory in Caria for their role in the Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC). What. After 200 years, only much reduced and rather degenerate states remained,[9] until the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt by Rome. Towards the end 212 BC the country was divided into two kingdoms, Greater Armenia and Armenia Sophene, including Commagene or Armenia Minor. Herophilos (335–280 BC) was the first to base his conclusions on dissection of the human body and animal vivisection, and to provide accurate descriptions of the nervous system, liver and other key organs. Technological developments from the Hellenistic period include cogged gears, pulleys, the screw, Archimedes' screw, the screw press, glassblowing, hollow bronze casting, surveying instruments, an odometer, the pantograph, the water clock, a water organ, and the Piston pump. 370 BC), the Achaean League (est. [95] Numismatic evidence shows that Hellenic influence penetrated further inland. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. They continued to attack neighboring kingdoms such as Bithynia and Pergamon, plundering and extracting tribute. Developments in painting included experiments in chiaroscuro by Zeuxis and the development of landscape painting and still life painting. Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. [83][84] Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BC to 63 BC. The resulting Indo-Scythian kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 35. As a result of Alexander's policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. This varied greatly by location. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. Pliny the Elder, after having described the sculpture of the classical period, says: Cessavit deinde ars ("then art disappeared"). Athens was then occupied by Macedonian troops, and run by Macedonian officials. Alexander spread Greek culture throughout the Persian Empire, including parts of Asia and Africa. Many cities maintained nominal autonomy while under the rule of the local king or satrap, and often had Greek-style institutions. 173-179. [144] Greek temples built during the Hellenistic period were generally larger than classical ones, such as the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the temple of Artemis at Sardis, and the temple of Apollo at Didyma (rebuilt by Seleucus in 300 BC). [109] Seleucia replaced Babylon as the metropolis of the lower Tigris. the characteristics of Greek culture, especially after the time of Alexander the Great; … [15] His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC. The trends of Hellenization were therefore accompanied by Greeks adopting native ways over time, but this was widely varied by place and by social class. [131] Known as the "Father of Geography", Eratosthenes also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians, based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. Various parts of Thrace were under Macedonian rule under Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, Ptolemy II, and Philip V but were also often ruled by their own kings. Nevertheless, Roman rule at least brought an end to warfare, and cities such as Athens, Corinth, Thessaloniki and Patras soon recovered their prosperity. Hellenism definition is - grecism. In these subjects he could give consummate pleasure, selling them for more than other artists received for their large pictures" (Natural History, Book XXXV.112). Ancient magic and divination, 11. The kingdom of Meroë was in constant contact with Ptolemaic Egypt and Hellenistic influences can be seen in their art and archaeology. Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. : the Hellenism of Alexandrian Jews. As a result of the confusion in Greece at the end of the Second Macedonian War, the Seleucid Empire also became entangled with the Romans. [136][failed verification]. Acquired from the Galerie Puhze, in Freiburg, in 1985. Both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism belong to what can be termed Hellenistic Christianity, that is, a form of Christianity heavily influenced by Greek philosophies, particularly Gnosticism. During the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia, Arsacid control expanded to include Herat (in 167 BC), Babylonia (in 144 BC), Media (in 141 BC), Persia (in 139 BC), and large parts of Syria (in the 110s BC). Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria[69] with 200,000 volumes according to Plutarch. The concept of Hellenistic religion as the late form of Ancient Greek religion covers any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). By the 2nd century BC, the kingdom of Numidia also began to see Hellenistic culture influence its art and architecture. The Hellenistic period followed the conquests of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE), who had spread Ancient Greek culture throughout the Middle East and Western Asia, following the previous cultural period of Classical Greece.The classical period in Ancient Greek philosophy had begun with Socrates (c. 470-399 BCE), whose student Plato had taught Aristotle, who in turn had tutored Alexander. The first of the Diadochi wars broke out when Perdiccas planned to marry Alexander's sister Cleopatra and began to question Antigonus I Monophthalmus' leadership in Asia Minor. [4] Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. Hellenism introduced and spread the Greek language, art, culture, political ideas, and philosophy across the Mediterranean and Middle East. The vast Seleucid Empire was, like Egypt, mostly dominated by a Greco-Macedonian political elite. "Hellenistic" is a modern word and a 19th-century concept; the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in ancient Greece.Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. Ptolemaic administration was, like the ancient Egyptian bureaucracy, highly centralized and focused on squeezing as much revenue out of the population as possible though tariffs, excise duties, fines, taxes and so forth. Demetrius possibly died about 180 BC; numismatic evidence suggests the existence of several other kings shortly thereafter. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated in a civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome. These new kingdoms were also influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient. In the Indo-Greek kingdom we find kings who were converts to Buddhism (e.g., Menander). Rulers were distinguished by this name – the system of numbering rulers was not used until modern times. Pontic culture was a mix of Greek and Iranian elements; the most hellenized parts of the kingdom were on the coast, populated by Greek colonies such as Trapezus and Sinope, the latter of which became the capital of the kingdom. Shortly afterwards, Rome became involved in Sicily, fighting against the Carthaginians in the First Punic War. There was a temple to Serapis, the Greco-Egyptian god. Ptolemy I even created a new god, Serapis, who was combination of two Egyptian gods: Apis and Osiris, with attributes of Greek gods. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. In spite of this shift, Hellenistic philosophy continued to influence these three religious traditions and the Renaissance thought which followed them. Greeks continued being an important part of the cultural world of India for generations. There has been a trend in writing the history of this period to depict Hellenistic art as a decadent style, following the Golden Age of Classical Athens. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 11. Its capital was the city of Petra, an important trading city on the incense route. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). After initial successes, he was forced to surrender to Seleucus in 285 BC and later died in captivity. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work that dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death. [78] Nabatean art shows Greek influences and paintings have been found depicting Dionysian scenes. Roman taxes were imposed, except in Athens and Sparta, and all the cities had to accept rule by Rome's local allies. The depictions of the Buddha appear to have been influenced by Greek culture: Buddha representations in the Ghandara period often showed Buddha under the protection of Herakles. Arnaldo Momigliano, an Italian Jew who wrote before and after the Second World War, studied the problem of mutual understanding between races in the conquered areas. [54] External possessions such as Cyprus and Cyrene were run by strategoi, military commanders appointed by the crown. The setting up of ruler cults was more based on the systematized honors offered to the kings (sacrifice, proskynesis, statues, altars, hymns) which put them on par with the gods (isotheism) than on actual belief of their divine nature. The struggles with Rome had left Greece depopulated and demoralised. The Roman consul Lucius Mummius advanced from Macedonia and defeated the Greeks at Corinth, which was razed to the ground. Demetrius fled to central Greece with his mercenaries and began to build support there and in the northern Peloponnese. After their defeats by Pergamon and Rome the Galatians slowly became hellenized and they were called "Gallo-Graeci" by the historian Justin[71] as well as Ἑλληνογαλάται (Hellēnogalátai) by Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca historica v.32.5, who wrote that they were "called Helleno-Galatians because of their connection with the Greeks."[72]. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks and overseers made this possible. Under the Seleucids, Parthia was governed by various Greek satraps such as Nicanor and Philip. Libraries were also present in Antioch, Pella, and Kos. The mlecchas are wedded to the creations of their own fancy",[90] such as flying machines that are generally called vimanas. People of all ages and social statuses were depicted in the art of the Hellenistic age. The Bosporan Kingdom was a multi-ethnic kingdom of Greek city states and local tribal peoples such as the Maeotians, Thracians, Crimean Scythians and Cimmerians under the Spartocid dynasty (438–110 BC). Antigonus II Gonatas invaded Thrace in the summer of 277 and defeated a large force of 18,000 Gauls. During the Hellenistic period Greek cultural influence and power reached the peak of its geographical expansion, being dominant in the Mediterranean world and most of West and Central Asia, even in parts of the Indian subcontinent, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in classical antiquity that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.Until the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the early Muslim conquests of the eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria (now in southern Turkey), the two main Greek urban … He kept a core of 500 of them at Apameia. Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. From the 6th century BC on, the multiethnic people in this region gradually intermixed with each other, creating a Greco-Getic populace. The Greek population and the native population did not always mix; the Greeks moved and brought their own culture, but interaction did not always occur. These policies can also be interpreted as the result of Alexander's possible megalomania[112] during his later years. The philosophical schools of Aristotle (the Peripatetics of the Lyceum) and Plato (Platonism at the Academy) also remained influential. Diodotus II, son of Diodotus, was overthrown in about 230 BC by Euthydemus, possibly the satrap of Sogdiana, who then started his own dynasty. Appreciating diverse cultures is important, as we are always confronted with many challenges when considering our own identity and how we interact with one another. [101] The core of Carthage's military was the Greek-style phalanx formed by citizen hoplite spearmen who had been conscripted into service, though their armies also included large numbers of mercenaries. It was a time of spiritual The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus, P. 17. Pergamum broke away under Eumenes I who defeated a Seleucid army sent against him. Review by Nicholas Campion, University of Wales Trinity Saint David. They retained their independence by the maintenance of a powerful navy, by maintaining a carefully neutral posture and acting to preserve the balance of power between the major Hellenistic kingdoms.[30]. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Bedal, Leigh-Ann; The Petra Pool-complex: A Hellenistic Paradeisos in the Nabataean Capital, pg 178. Indian sources also maintain religious contact between Buddhist monks and the Greeks, and some Greco-Bactrians did convert to Buddhism. Greek literature would have a dominant effect on the development of the Latin literature of the Romans. Hellenistic culture produced seats of learning throughout the Mediterranean. Catholicism is the more moderate of the two, having retained obedience to the Church and its traditions as well as requiring certain works for salvation. Secondly, what made the Hellenistic culture unique? Tension between Macedon and Rome increased when the young king of Macedon, Philip V, harbored one of the chief pirates, Demetrius of Pharos[103] (a former client of Rome). This was the first time a European force had invaded the region. His son, Herod Archelaus, ruled from 4 BC to AD 6 when he was deposed for the formation of Roman Judea. the imitation or adoption of ancient Greek language, thought, customs, art, etc. [59][61][62][63] The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece. Green, Peter (1990); Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Despite this, it is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration,[4] compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. Under Antiochus I (c. 324/323 – 261 BC), however, the unwieldy empire was already beginning to shed territories. 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